Scientist have tried to take a picture of a black hole by creating a massive telescope. This telescope used radio wave based telescopes connected all over the world to create an earth sized telescope which may have the power to actually take a picture of a black hole. While this picture will not truly be of a black hole, since no light escapes it, it will be a portrait of the event horizon. This image has been taken over a five-night period. The amount of data received over this period will take months to process. This image will allow for test of Einstein’s Theory of gravity in extreme environments. This image could prove the existence of black holes, something monumental in the world of physics and astronomy.
The Last Universal Common Ancestor, LUCA, was a microbe that live around 4 billion years ago. It is believed that it is anaerobic and autotrophic, not breathing and making its own food. There is also evidence it live near iron-sulfur rich hydrothermal bents deep underground. it would have possessed a metabolism dependent upon hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen, then after using these it would turn them into ammonia and other organic compounds. this microbe is what we all can relate back too. To find LUCA, we will study the genetic tree of life, by following the genes, to revel the genetic relationship and evolutionary history of organisms, this is called phylogenetics.
By studying LUCA, they have looked for universals genes found in all genomes, and have found about 30 genes that belong LUCA. By looking at ancient genes that have exceptionally long lineages but have not been shared by lateral gene transfer, has found 355 genes which belonged to LUCA. While this is too small a number of genes would not support life but this is just the being. these small number of genes can tell us that LUCA lived in hydrothermal vents.
Between April 2 to the 3 of 2017, three solar flares peaked out of the sun. Solar flares send out powerful bursts of radiation. This radiation is harmful, but luckily cannot pass through Earth’s atmosphere to harm humans. These solar flares however can affect, if strong enough, to disturb atmosphere layers where GPS and communication signals travel. While these solar flares where not strong enough to affect the atmosphere to the most extensive level, since they where a tenth of intensities of the flares who do.
The first flare was an M5.3, the second was a M5.7, and the final flare was an M5.8. any M-class flare is a tenth the size of the most intense flares, which are the X-class flares. the number after provides more details specific details for how intense each flare was. M2 is twice as powerful as M1, and M3 is three times as intense as M1.
These images where captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory.
Pluto’s atmosphere is layered making observations hard to figure out. While its atmosphere appears to be mostly cloud free, images taken by the new horizons’ cameras have shown potential clouds. These clouds would mean that the weather on Pluto is even more complex than previously understood or imaged.
Pluto’s surface is icy and has a wide spectrum of brightness. some of its brightest areas on Pluto are among the most reflective in the solar system. These extreme levels of brightness indicate that there is activity on Pluto’s surface.
Penitentes, bowl shaped depressions with jagged spires around the edges that rise several hundred feet have been found on Pluto. these are formed by erosion. since these have only been found on solar objects with atmospheres, it leads to the idea the formation of penitentes can only be found on planets with a developed atmosphere and ice on its surface. there height however depends on the environment. Pluto’s ridges are much larger than those found on earth; Pluto’s are almost 1,600 feet tall and two or three miles wide.
Earths two radiation belt known as the Van Allen belts where discover in 1958. But recent discoveries have shown that a third belt will sometimes appear. The image above shows the three belts in yellow and green represents the space between them.
The Van Allen Belts since they are regions of dynamic radiation are regions high-energy particles; they are trapped there by the earth’s magnetic field. These particles can gain and lose energize particles. they gain the particles from radiation from the sun. But they lose of particles is more interesting and can be depleted by a thousand-fold in mere hours. The loss of particles happens when intense bouts of solar radiation disturbs the earth’s magnetic field, causing drop-outs which are times when the belts lose a dramatic number of particles. Drop-outs involve power electromagnetic waves which scatter ultra-relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. This means the electrons will move down the waves and go into the atmosphere, or rain into the atmosphere. This occurs in the lower region of the belts close to earth.
This image was captured by Juno as clouds swirl around southern Jupiter. Juno is a spacecraft which was launched aboard an Atlas V-551 rocket from Cape Canaveral, Florida, on August 5, 2011 and arrive to its starting location near Jupiter in the past July. as of the past 11 days it has finished its elliptical polar orbit around Jupiter. Oval BA can be seen on the right-hand side only partially visible due to the current orientation of the planet. Oval BA is spot of intense storms which appears red, but current astronomers are uncertain of the cause of the red appearance. Current hypothesis is that the storm is so intense it is bringing materials called “chromophores,” color-changing compounds, to the top where solar ultraviolet rays turn them red. The redder the spot appears the more intense the storm is. The white swirls are cloud systems and planet circling-cloud bands; some of the lighter swirls have been suggested to be lighting storms.
One of the most well known archaeoastronomy sites is Stonehenge World Heritage Site (WHS), the more notable part of the Stonehenge structure, even though both parts have astrological significance. One reason for its fame is that it is one of the most architecturally sophisticated prehistoric stone circle in the world. this site helps us understand Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial and mortuary practices. Its construction was specifically made to align along the midwinter sunset-midsummer sunrise solstitial axis. The picture shows the sun align through Stonehenge during the winter solstice.
One of that is less well known archaeoastronomy sites is The Temple of Hathor at Dandara, Egypt. Known as the Dandara complex, it is extremely well preserved group including the temple to honor the goddess Hathor, the temple of Isis, two Mammisi, and a ruined Coptic church. The temple of Isis is orientated towards the rising position of Sirius. The temple of Hathor contains different astronomical traditions which each add their own stars, asterisms and constellations. The monumental temple of Hathor is position to face the rising of Ursa Major while also being perpendicular to the flow of the Nile river. It is understood that the placement was to incorporate both astrological and topographic orientations. These ideas are understood from the ceremonies and related texts engraved on its walls. There are also feast calendars and the circular zodiac in the ceiling of the small chapel.
These archaeaoastronomy sites are use often to understand the history and tradition that was incorporated into the ancient societies.